E2 – Festuca rubra hay meadows:
This low or medium high, mesic montane meadow can be characterized by Festuca rubra, Cynosurus cristatus, Lolium perenne, Agrostis capillaris, Festuca pratensis as dominant species. It occurs both on calcareous and silicate rock. Its total area in Hungary is around 2000 ha. The centre of its occurrence is the western part of Dunántúl (850 ha, mainly Őrség, Vendvidék, Zalai-dombság, Kemeneshát, Soproni- and Kőszegi-hegység) and the Északi-középhegység (700 ha, mainly the higher parts: Börzsöny, Mátra, Bükk, Sátor-hegység). There are less stands in the Dunántúli-középhegység (400 ha in Bakony), and in Dunántúli-dombság (250 ha, especially in Zselic and its vicinity). There are no actual data from Alföld (Kisalföld included), from the drier hilly part of the country, neither from the main part of the Dunántúli-középhegység. The habitat was formerly developed and maintained by mowing, and partly by grazing at the fringes, openings and clearings of mesic forests. Formerly it must have been a more prevalent habitat, but due to the abandonment of traditional land-use, the area of Festuca rubra hay meadows decreases. Consequently, the actual occurrences are determined by the combined effect of the climate, the former and the actual land-use. After abandonment shrub encroachment is typical. Furthermore, the lack or decrease of mowing and/or grazing causes impoverishment of the habitat. These stands show transitions to other habitats (mainly to meadows of tall grasses – E1, or uncharacteristic meadows and tall herb communities – OB).
Molnár, Zs., M. Biró, J. Bölöni & F. Horváth (2008): Distribution of the (semi-)natural habitats in Hungary I.: Marshes and grasslands, Acta Botanica Hungarica 50 (Suppl): 59-105. >>> letöltés (5,4 MB, PDF)
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