K1a – Lowland pedunculate oak - hornbeam woodlands:
Shadowed and mesic forests of lowlands and hilly regions, with Quercus robur and Carpinus betulus dominance in the tree layer. The herb layer is composed of general and mesic forest species, and usually the geophyte vegetation is well-developed in early spring. These forests actually cover approximately 35000 ha in Hungary. The centre of the distribution is in the western part of Dunántúl. With the greatest extension the habitat can be found in the western part of Dél-Dunántúl (Belső-Somogy, 14000 ha), and connected to this area, on Dráva-sík (6000 ha). It occurs with greater amount on Nyugat-Dunántúl (9000 ha, especially around the Dráva River), connected with the occurrences in the southern part of Kisalföld. Lowland oak-hornbeam woodlands can also be found in the Dunántúli-középhegység mainly in its north-western part, at the edge of Kisalföld (2000 ha), whereas it occurs only sporadically in the inner part of the mountain (e.g. Bakony, Vértes, Velencei-hegység, and at the margin of Gerecse). Not counting the Dráva-sík, it can be found only at the edges of Alföld, with the greatest number on Szatmár-Beregi-sík (1500 ha). The habitat barely covers 250 ha in the Északi-középhegyég. It occurs on incoherent sedimentary rocks (especially on sand and clay), mainly on the humid parts of lowlands and hilly regions. On lowlands, it appears typically on high floodplains, whereas in river and stream valleys in the hilly regions of Hungary. In the latter case the habitat occurs together and often forms mosaic with sessile oak-hornbeam woodlands (K2), accordingly their separation is not always straightforward.
Molnár, Zs., M. Biró, J. Bölöni & F. Horváth (2008): Distribution of the (semi-)natural habitats in Hungary I.: Marshes and grasslands, Acta Botanica Hungarica 50 (Suppl): 59-105. >>> letöltés (5,4 MB, PDF)
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