LY3 – Limestone beech forests:
They grow on the rocky, stony and/or detrital, often steep dolomite and limestone areas of the Északi- and Dunántúli-középhegység. Beech, or infrequently Tilia species and Acer pseudoplatanus dominate these forests. The joint mixture ratio of these trees is 50% at least. Presence of Sorbus species and the almost total absence of Fraxinus excelsior is characteristic. Limestone beech forests can be a completely closed forest, as well as mosaics of forest and grassland patches. The herb layer often holds relic species connected to cliffs and stony ground (e.g. Sesleria species, Carex alba, Calamagrostis varia, Valeriana tripteris, Moehringia muscosa, Phyteuma orbiculare). Nitrophyte and disturbance tolerant species are almost missing. The total area of the habitat is around 550 ha in Hungary. In the Dunántúli-középhegység this habitat type is connected to dolomite bedrock, where due to the variable terrain, beech and downy oak woodlands can be found next to each other. Hence limestone beech forests are most frequent in Bakony and Vértes, additionally it occurs in the Keszthelyi-hegység, in the Budai-hegység and in Pilis. This habitat is connected to limestone in the Északi-középhegység (350 ha), the occurrences are basically limited to Bükk mountain. There are scattered and uncertain other data from Dunántúl (Kőszegi-hegység, Balaton-felvidék, Mecsek) and from other places of the Északi-középhegység (Naszály, Cserhát, Aggteleki-karszt, Mátra). The recognition of the habitat type is quite easy, only the stands with species poor herb layer can cause problems. However, its extension is presumably overestimated in Bükk.
Molnár, Zs., M. Biró, J. Bölöni & F. Horváth (2008): Distribution of the (semi-)natural habitats in Hungary I.: Marshes and grasslands, Acta Botanica Hungarica 50 (Suppl): 59-105. >>> letöltés (5,4 MB, PDF)
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